Afghanistan, iraq, and the limits of international cultural property ways to make money on your own law

In 2003, the baghdad museum suffered tremendous damage due to looting during ways to make money on your own the US-led invasion of iraq. Years before, afghanistan’s national museum went through a similar loss in 1989, after the end of soviet occupation of afghanistan. As the soviets pulled out, the national museum in afghanistan suffered serious damage and lost ways to make money on your own 70% of its collection – approximately 140,000 objects – and 90% of its archives. [1] while these lootings took place during vastly different political and ways to make money on your own historical circumstances, the similarities are obvious: not only do we see the continued practice of treating ways to make money on your own cultural heritage items as war plunder, but these items lose their cultural value as a trade-off for monetary gain. This article aims to compare the plundering of the national ways to make money on your own museum of afghanistan in 1989 to the events at the ways to make money on your own national museum in baghdad, iraq in 2003. Furthermore, this article also goes through several international conventions, and explains how these laws failed to safeguard cultural heritage. One should not lay blame on a single party; after all, war and conflict often involve too many actors and stories. Instead, we should look to more proactive solutions by asking how ways to make money on your own we let this happen, and what failures in institutional mechanisms have allowed for such ways to make money on your own disasters. Background of civil wars and museum looting the national museum ways to make money on your own of afghanistan the national museum of afghanistan, before and after restoration in 2002 .

The national museum of afghanistan (NMA) in kabul was founded in 1921 and boasted a collection ways to make money on your own of antiquities excavated exclusively within the borders of the state. [2] at the time of the soviet intervention in 1979, the museum was thought to have possessed close to 200,000 objects. It should be noted that no full inventory of the ways to make money on your own museum’s collections has been conducted because all records were lost ways to make money on your own in the looting, and therefore it is very hard to obtain exact figures. [3] the collection included artifacts from an array of ancient cultures, including india, china, iran, mesopotamia, syria, and egypt. Because of its geopolitical location, afghanistan was considered the “crossroads of cultures” as it connects europe, the middle east, and north africa to south asia and southeast asia. [4] ideas, culture, and objects were frequently exchanged and this produced the legacy ways to make money on your own housed in the NMA. As armed conflict escalated in afghanistan first with the soviet ways to make money on your own occupation starting in 1979, and then the civil war beginning in 1989, the NMA’s preservation and safety were quickly compromised.

Similar to afghanistan’s relevance in south asia, present-day iraq is located in the “cradle of civilization.” home to some of the near east’s great ancient powers, such as the sumerians and babylonians, iraq’s cultural history is considered foundational to modern western society. [8] in efforts to unearth more about this deep and rich ways to make money on your own history, many archeological sites have been excavated since the mid-1800. [9] since the time of its opening in 1923, the iraq national museum in baghdad has acted as a ways to make money on your own major repository of iraqi cultural history, and its antiquities collection accumulated praise as amongst the finest ways to make money on your own collections that captured the essential developments of modern life. [10] in anticipation of the american-led invasion of iraq in 2003, there was increased media attention on what would be done, and who would safeguard the artifacts in the museum. [11] antiquities, reference books, and around 40,000 manuscripts were taken off-site for protection and windows and doors were barricaded. [12] still, when the united states army took baghdad on april 9, 2003 in response to political turmoil in the region, looters soon entered the museum and took 10,000-15,000 items. [13] though the museum was put on a no-strike list at the beginning of the war, U.S. Forces did little to prevent or stop the plundering and ways to make money on your own destruction.

These bodies do not automatically apply to every state. In order to respect the sovereignty of nations, international law permits a country to refuse to sign international ways to make money on your own conventions should they disagree with certain principles. Additionally, states are also allowed to add reservations, understandings, and declarations to their acceptance of an international treaty. Furthermore, countries must ratify the treaty through their federal constitutions before ways to make money on your own the convention is fully enforceable. Laws in practice: useful tools or ideologies?

The circumstances regarding the destruction of both museums are, at a very technical level, different. Mainly, the situation in afghanistan during the civil war only involved ways to make money on your own national actors. Afghanistan was not a party/signatory to any of the international conventions when the plundering ways to make money on your own of the kabul museum started . Though they signed and acceded to the 1954 convention in ways to make money on your own 2017 and the 1970 UNESCO convention in 2005, the damage to the museum was already done and any ways to make money on your own laws applicable could not be considered to apply retroactively. [27] under the circumstances, it is difficult to apply any international laws with regards ways to make money on your own to the plundering that started in 1989. There is also no legal argument against the parties that ways to make money on your own were involved in the civil war. There could, however, be a claim against the international community: the 1970 UNESCO convention states that other signatories of the ways to make money on your own treaty did have a responsibility to safeguard cultural heritage regardless ways to make money on your own of it being outside of their territorial boundaries. [28] this included nations such as the united states, india, and iran. The convention stresses, though it does not explicitly say, that nations on both ends need to cooperate with one ways to make money on your own another in order to protect the antiquities. [29] however, there are two issues with this structure. First, it is not feasible to expect a nation’s “cooperation” when it is facing a civil war. Second, because sovereignty is at the basis of international law, entering territories that are not parties to the convention to ways to make money on your own save its cultural heritage should be done with verbal and ways to make money on your own physical support from the nation in question and the united ways to make money on your own nations. Unfortunately, there was not enough international support for afghanistan in this ways to make money on your own case.

At the time of the baghdad museum’s plundering, iraq was occupied by a foreign state. The actions that followed are subject to the scrutiny of ways to make money on your own international laws. There are a number of claims that exist for iraq’s case. According to international norms, the united states army, as the occupying force, had a duty to protect iraq’s cultural institution. [30] instead, they failed to protect the baghdad museum. Matters become worse when the international community quickly drew the ways to make money on your own conclusion that the united states army, in spite of knowing that an attack on the museum ways to make money on your own was imminent, did nothing to prevent it. At the time of the conflict in iraq, the united states was not a signatory of the 1954 ways to make money on your own convention, and therefore cannot be held accountable under that convention (the U.S. Has since ratified the convention). [31] the 1954 convention is seen as customary international law, and the united states army observed these laws in the ways to make money on your own 1991 gulf war despite not being a signatory. [32] it is possible that the army was not physically able ways to make money on your own to observe them in this instance. The 1970 convention was applicable but proved to be rather ways to make money on your own ineffective because the language of the law was “inadequate,” according to scholars. [33] the U.S. Is a signatory of the hague convention of 1907 and ways to make money on your own is accountable, as an occupying force, to safeguard iraq’s cultural property. [34] in failing to prevent the plunder of the museum, the U.S. Breached the obligations set forth by this convention. Military objective is applicable here because they were not using ways to make money on your own the museum as a stronghold. However, the army is accountable by duties set forth in the ways to make money on your own lieber code. In the wake of this war and the destruction of ways to make money on your own iraq’s cultural heritage, no actor has faced any repercussions.

A study conducted showed that overall, the U.S. And the U.K. Are two of the biggest markets for the trade of ways to make money on your own illicit goods. [35] customs agencies in each nation have successfully repatriated various goods ways to make money on your own to iraq and afghanistan, and tried to maintain strict barriers for entry because of ways to make money on your own their large market presence. [36] legally, because they are signatories of the 1970 convention, they are obligated to make an effort towards this. These codified documents provide for a robust legal framework that ways to make money on your own could have prevented the plunder of the iraq national museum ways to make money on your own and the destruction of several other monuments and antiquities since ways to make money on your own that time. The international community made efforts to rectify writing where they ways to make money on your own believe it was not specific enough. For example, the 1995 UNIDROIT convention attempted to clarify and elaborate on ways to make money on your own some of the legal issues that the 1970 convention failed ways to make money on your own to mention. [37] the shortcomings of

When legally assessing the applicability of these laws to the ways to make money on your own situation in iraq and afghanistan, sometimes it is the country and not the convention that ways to make money on your own failed to ensure against the plunder of their cultural sites. Specifically, even though conventions are readily accepting nations into the agreement, some nations decline to ratify them. For many reasons, nations may find that they restrict certain indispensable activities. For example, the united states did not sign the 1954 hague convention ways to make money on your own because it limited their nuclear program. [38] signing a convention into a constitution is not mandatory. Additionally, respecting the sovereignty of each nation is paramount to the ways to make money on your own preservation of a peaceful international political climate. Following this logic, the weight of pillaging and the destruction of cultural heritage ways to make money on your own cannot be properly addressed by a general codified document. Nations must move to make bilateral agreements, which can be binding, consequential, and easier to follow. Are there ways to

Many efforts have been made to restore both museums to ways to make money on your own their former conditions, with a particular focus on updating the museum archival methods. When the united states got involved in afghanistan in 2001, the international community donated funds that would help the NMA ways to make money on your own re-open to the public in 2004. [39] in 2009, the united kingdom seized cargo consisting of 15,000 looted afghan antiquities and repatriated them. [40] it is unclear whether any artifacts from this seizure came ways to make money on your own from the NMA. In 2012, 20 years after the plunder, the U.S. Embassy in kabul made efforts to partner the oriental institute ways to make money on your own at the university of chicago with the NMA. [41] from this coalition, the parties hope to restore the museum’s conditions and artifacts through four different projects: the national museum of afghanistan-oriental institute partnership, the afghan heritage mapping project, the core operations infrastructure grant, and the mobile museum outreach program. These projects use technology and education to rebuild and maintain ways to make money on your own the cultural heritage of afghanistan. Because of this, the NMA has seen much improvement since the early 2000s.

In iraq, immediately after the looting occurred, american teams of soldiers and scholars set out to work ways to make money on your own with the museum’s staff in order to restore the state of the ways to make money on your own museum. [42] they worked quickly in order to recover the stolen goods. Starting in 2003, the oriental institute began a database for the collection at ways to make money on your own the baghdad museum in order to help customs officials prevent ways to make money on your own the trafficking of iraq’s cultural property. [43] today, over half of those items have been retrieved; approximately 7,000 were returned within a year of the plunder. [44] the U.S. Government and the international community also displayed support by passing ways to make money on your own legislation that condemned the illicit trade of iraqi goods following ways to make money on your own the sack of the museum. [45] almost twelve years after the sack, the baghdad museum was re-opened in 2015 with new exhibitions, renovated galleries, and digitized records.

For all stolen cultural heritage items, the international council of museums created a red list in ways to make money on your own order to help prevent the illegal trafficking of cultural heritage. [46] this is particularly helpful for other types of illicit trafficking ways to make money on your own in afghanistan and iraq. Not related to the museums, unearthed antiquities have been illegally excavated and sold in black ways to make money on your own markets. This is in violation of international regulations, yet it is hard to conceive what can be done ways to make money on your own to prevent it from happening. How can we monitor the theft of goods we do ways to make money on your own not even know to exist? There are been several technological solutions that have helped solve ways to make money on your own this problem, including the GIS systems used by the oriental institute in ways to make money on your own a project listed above.

About the author: kavita oza is a student at sotheby’s institute of art pursuing her master’s degree in art business. Last year, she graduated from the george washington university university with a ways to make money on your own bachelor of arts in international relations with a double concentration ways to make money on your own in security policy and international economics and a double minor ways to make money on your own in art history and socio-cultural anthropology. Kavita uses her interest in security policy, international law and fine art in order to guide her ways to make money on your own research in her professional and academic career. She is currently with winston art group as an associate ways to make money on your own in the advisory department.

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