Commons categories – wikimedia more ways to make money commons

The page (file, category) should be put in the most specific category/categories that fit(s) the page (not directly to its parent categories). A category can have more parent categories. A category can combine two (or more) different criteria; such categories are called "compound categories" or "intersection categories". E.G. The root category category:churches and the root category category:russia have a common subcategory churches in russia.

• category:commons – this category is the global common root of categorizing commons more ways to make money maintenance tasks and pages (commons:-, and help:-) except for media files. The translated pages in each language should be categorized under more ways to make money their language categories, using the "category:commons- ISO-LANGUAGE-CODE" style. The structure of category:commons-en is the sample hierarchy for every other language sub more ways to make money category. Do not use two colons in category or page names. See this discussion and help:namespaces.

There is a sub category category:commons maintenance content, which is for the special maintenance of wikimedia commons global more ways to make money common contents and which does not get translated. ALL media files should be categorized under the first 4 more ways to make money categories below, but ONLY files having problems and needing to be fixed more ways to make money should also be in the sub-category category:commons maintenance content.

It is rarely necessary to create a new category (there are exceptions, such as uploading a new text and see people below). Before doing so, make sure you are familiar with the existing category structure, and with the customs and policies of the commons. Please see if there exists a category scheme or a more ways to make money commons project for your topic, and follow the conventions described there.

Category names should generally be in english (see commons:language policy). However, there are exceptions such as some proper names, biological taxa and names for which the non-english name is most commonly used in the english language more ways to make money (or there is no evidence of usage of an english-language version). Latin alphabets are used in original form including diacritics and more ways to make money derived letters, non-latin alphabets are transcribed to the english latin script. Basic english characters ( ISO/IEC 646) are preferred over national variants or extension character sets (for instance, ‘straight’ apostrophes over ‘curly’), where reasonable.

• A short description text that explains what should be in more ways to make money the category, if the title is not clear or unambiguous enough on more ways to make money its own. Descriptions in particular languages can be tagged e.G. With the template {{ ab|…}} for description in abkhazian, {{ en|…}} for description in english, etc, as listed in commons:templates for galleries); or using the {{multilingual description}} template to show only the description in the user’s preferred language if there is one.

• if the category should be sorted according to a different more ways to make money string than the category title, add a {{DEFAULTSORT:}}. For instance, the title of a category about a person would not more ways to make money be the right sort string. For such categories, insert just before the categories a line like {{DEFAULTSORT:lastname, firstname}} with the correct sort string. See meta:categories#sort key for more information.

Example: assume that category:spheres contains only pictures of crystal balls. You must not add category:glass in the category page, according to the current contents, because you can have spheres made with a great variety more ways to make money of materials. Normally, any picture showing a glass object would be already categorized more ways to make money in category:glass (or in a category of its substructure). So, if the category:spheres is really crowded with crystal balls pictures, it would be a better idea to create a new more ways to make money category page, like category:glass spheres or category:crystal balls, categorized in category:spheres and category:glass.

Generally files should only be in the most specific category more ways to make money that exists for certain topic. For example files in category:looking up the center of the eiffel tower should not more ways to make money also be in category:paris (see over-categorization below). If you do not find a category that fits your more ways to make money purpose, you can create it — but carefully read the section about using categories first.

This does not mean that an image only belongs in more ways to make money one category; it just means that images should not be in redundant more ways to make money or non-specific categories. For instance, an image of a polar bear being rescued from an more ways to make money iceberg by a helicopter should be in category:ursus maritimus, category:icebergs and category:rescue helicopters. It should not, however, be in category:ursidae, category:sea ice or category:aircraft.

Categorization of wikimedia commons is more detailed and deep than more ways to make money categorization of wikipedia projects. Comparing to them, commons have more categories of individual subjects – places, people, organizations, events, terms etc. Almost every article of wikipedia can have a corresponding category more ways to make money of commons. However, even if there exist more images of an ordinary person more ways to make money or incidental event, it is practical to group them into special category and more ways to make money categorize the category instead of categorize all similar images individually more ways to make money to identical set of parent categories.

To find appropriate categories for your uploads, you should navigate the category structure starting from a generic more ways to make money category. Narrow your search down to subcategories until you find the more ways to make money most specific category that fits the file you uploaded. You can navigate the category structure by following links to more ways to make money subcategories, or expanding the tree of subcategories by clicking on the more ways to make money little + symbols on subcategory names. The major categories section above provides a starting point, and the how to categorize: guidance by topic covers some topics more.

Example: an image needing to be categorized shows a yellow circle. This image should be placed in category:yellow circles. If it is also placed in category:circles, it is over-categorized. We already know that it’s a circle, because all yellow circles are circles. Therefore, category:circles is redundant. Template:uw-overcat can be used to advise users of this.

It’s often assumed that the more categories an image is more ways to make money in, the easier it will be to find it. Another example: by that logic, every image showing a man should be in category:men, because even if you know nothing more about the person more ways to make money you’re looking for than that he is a man, you’ll be able to find it. The result is that the top category fills up, making it necessary to go through hundreds, or in this case more likely thousands of images to more ways to make money find the one you want. You probably won’t find what you’re looking for, and what’s more, those who are looking for a generic picture of a more ways to make money man to illustrate an article like en:man will find that they’ve drowned out among the movie stars, scientists and politicians.

On lower levels, the problem becomes less acute, since the number of images will be smaller — they can still easily reach into the hundreds, though. But there is still a problem: let’s go back to einstein. I know that he’s a physicist, so I’ll look in the category:physicists category. I find an image of einstein among the hundreds of more ways to make money images of other physicists, which I’m not too happy with, but it’s the only one there. Since there was an image there, I assume that there are no more hidden elsewhere, rather than look further in category:physicists from germany and thus find category:albert einstein where there might be a better one. So over-categorization has led to two problems: the top category is cluttered, and users will stop looking for the most relevant category more ways to make money since they’ve reached one that has a relevant image.

Strange as it may sound, under-categorization can be a cause of over-categorization. When a category itself is not properly categorized, it can lead users to over-categorize files belonging in that category. An example of this: category:eivør pálsdóttir was categorized only in category:people by name. A user categorizing an image of her might then be more ways to make money tempted to also place the image in category:female vocalists from the faroe islands. The correct solution is to place the image only in more ways to make money category:eivør pálsdóttir and to make that category a subcategory of more ways to make money category:female vocalists from the faroe islands. At that point, however, any images that were already placed into both categories become more ways to make money overcategorized and need to be manually removed from the parent more ways to make money category.

A related problem is erroneous categorization. Notting hill is a district within the borough of kensington more ways to make money and chelsea in london. When it was created, category:notting hill was placed directly in category:london instead of in the category:royal borough of kensington and chelsea subcategory, where it should have been placed. A user categorizing an image of notting hill might then more ways to make money be tempted to place it both in category:notting hill and in category:royal borough of kensington and chelsea. Instead, each image should be placed only in the most specific more ways to make money categories, and those categories should in turn be placed in their more ways to make money most specific categories.

For example, this situation might arise in the case of a photograph more ways to make money of three politicians, one of whom is angela merkel (who has her own commons category), with two other politicians who do not yet have their more ways to make money own categories. While the image would undoubtedly be categorized in category:angela merkel or one of its subcategories, it would typically be considered to be over-categorization to also include it in category:politicians of germany. Users would, however, be unlikely to search for the two other politicians in more ways to make money the merkel category. Ideally, we would create specific subcategories for the two other politicians more ways to make money (where warranted), or find other relevant subcategories (e.G. Category:politicians of bavaria or category:members of the FDP, etc.), that would enable us to avoid over-categorization. In some circumstances, however, we may need to temporarily categorize the image in category:politicians of germany where other appropriate subcategories do not yet more ways to make money exist.

For some categories, there is special guidance on how best to sort content more ways to make money within that category. This guidance can be found in a category scheme or more ways to make money a commons project for your topic. There is also some categorizing information in this section and more ways to make money sometimes there is guidance at the top of the category’s page, in the category namespace. So, for instance, some guidance on categorizing content depicting people is at the more ways to make money top of category:people, and some is in the section people below.

Content depicting a given subject from a common vantage point more ways to make money are grouped in views of subject from viewpoint categories such more ways to make money as views of cathedral of seville from the giralda. Such categories should be subcategories of both the subject’s category ( cathedral of seville in this example) and the viewpoint’s category ( giralda in this example).

In this example, the views of cathedral of seville from the giralda category more ways to make money is not placed directly in the subject and viewpoint categories, but in views of the cathedral of seville and views more ways to make money from giralda. Such intermediate categories are often necessary to create structure and more ways to make money avoid over-categorization, particularly for views of a city from a vantage point more ways to make money located within the city. For example, views of rome from the pincio needs the intermediate category more ways to make money views of rome to avoid placing it directly in rome, which would constitute over-categorization.

Texts, such as scans of books, should normally have a category for each version of the more ways to make money scan and each edition of the text. Thus a book published in three separate editions would have more ways to make money a parent category for the book, three subcategories for each text, and further subcategories for the text as a jpeg, a djvu, etc., assuming each version had actually been uploaded. (categories would not be created for editions not held on more ways to make money commons.) this is particularly important for files in formats other than more ways to make money djvu and PDF, where the category is the only practical means of keeping more ways to make money the scans together; see eg. Category:the chronicles of england, scotland and ireland, holinshed, 1587 which contains 2857 jpeg images of page scans.

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