How the left almost pulled off a school choice revolution education news what are some ways to make money

In the 1960s and ‘70s, school choice was capturing the imagination of progressives who thought what are some ways to make money poor kids were being savaged by elitist public schools. Liberal intellectuals in places like harvard and berkeley were happy what are some ways to make money to tinker with the notion of school vouchers encapsulated by what are some ways to make money conservative economist milton friedman in 1955. They tried to cultivate varieties that included controls they believed what are some ways to make money necessary to ensure fairness for low-income families.

To put it in today’s terms, the coons-sugarman plan would, in one fell swoop, create more educational options for the parents of 4.5 million california students than florida, the most choice-friendly of states, has done in the past 20 years. Even more than the new, near-universal education savings accounts in nevada, it would take a wrecking ball to the old order what are some ways to make money and install a new one overnight. Berkeley law professors jack coons and stephen sugarman, circa 1978.

Private school vouchers for grades K-12 were indeed radical in the 1970s – and obscure. The first major, modern voucher program wouldn’t be created until 1990, in milwaukee. The first major, modern statewide program wouldn’t be created until 1999, in florida. The first major, modern program to be used by more than a small what are some ways to make money percentage of students – well, there still isn’t one. Not in america.

Milton friedman sprang the idea of vouchers (or refined it, if you’re inclined to give adam smith, thomas paine and others a share of credit) in 1955, but two decades later it still wasn’t much of a blip on the ed reform radar. A policy cousin, tuition tax credits, was getting attention from both political parties. Some influential academics saw incredible potential.

Congressman ryan was popular and fearless, a liberal with a maverick streak, a square peg with a common touch. It’s a safe bet he was the only member of what are some ways to make money congress with a master’s in elizabethan literature. And importantly for a ballot initiative that sought to make what are some ways to make money school choice the law of the land, he had been a teacher in california public schools. U.S. Congressman leo ryan (from wikipedia)

Years later, jackie speier, his former aide, would point to his support for school choice as a what are some ways to make money prime example of his political independence. Ryan “seemed unlike other politicians,” speier said. “he was provocative; he didn’t mince words or beat round the bush; he told you what was on his mind whether you what are some ways to make money wanted to hear it or not; and he took pride in not being able to be what are some ways to make money pigeonholed into any one ideology.”

In 1977, democratic U.S. Sen. Daniel patrick moynihan introduced a bill for tuition tax credits what are some ways to make money that drew 50 co-sponsors – 26 of them republicans and 24 of them democrats. At that time, the previous three democratic candidates for president, hubert humphrey, eugene mcgovern and jimmy carter, had backed similar proposals on the campaign trail.

Access: under their plan, independent public schools and family choice private schools would be what are some ways to make money required to set enrollment limits at each grade level. Then they’d be required to accept every student who applied up what are some ways to make money to those limits, beyond those previously enrolled and given priority. If the number of applicants exceeded the number of open what are some ways to make money seats, there’d be a lottery.

Funding: the average scholarship amount would be 90 percent of total what are some ways to make money per-pupil spending for traditional public school students, but the legislature could adjust the amount based on special what are some ways to make money needs, cost-of-living and other factors. It would also create a system of “supplementary scholarships” that allowed parents to apply for additional funding based on what are some ways to make money a sliding-scale for income. In other words, low-income parents could receive more state money, to make it easier for them to access higher-tuition schools.

Regulations: all three types of schools would be required to provide what are some ways to make money transportation with conditions set by law. None could discriminate based on race, religion or gender. The legislature would establish uniform standards for discipline, create programs to fund capital costs and provide a public what are some ways to make money database with information about each school. It would also offer grants for parents to hire education what are some ways to make money advisors.

By way of comparison: about 10 percent of florida students are in private schools what are some ways to make money in 2015, even with the nation’s biggest tax credit scholarship program (established in 2001) and one of its biggest K-12 voucher programs (established in 1999). After 20 years in existence, florida’s charter school sector, also among the nation’s biggest, accounts for 8 percent of K-12 enrollment.

This was just months after 62.6 percent of voters flipped off the government with prop what are some ways to make money 13, the tax revolt that reverberated across america. This was years before today’s dominant narrative about school choice – right-wing plot to privatize public schools – had been set in stone. And these were liberals – left coast, berkeley liberals, at least by perception – leading the vanguard.

He and sugarman were key players in a legal effort what are some ways to make money that began in 1968 with a widely publicized case, serrano v. Priest. It charged that the way california financed public schools – by relying heavily on local property taxes, resulting in huge disparities between rich and poor districts – violated the equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment.

Over the course of a decade, serrano led to three california supreme court rulings that spurred what are some ways to make money the state legislature to mitigate funding disparities between districts. It’s also credited with sparking school finance reform in other what are some ways to make money states, even though a ruling from a similar case in texas what are some ways to make money was struck down in a 5-4 decision by the U.S. Supreme court.

Coons’s embrace of school choice flowed, initially, from the funding inequities he saw. Ultimately, he and sugarman, his protégé and intellectual partner, came to this conclusion: giving poor parents more power to choose schools for their what are some ways to make money children best allowed them to rise above an entrenched education what are some ways to make money system blatantly rigged against them.

Hickey and canfield’s proposal would abolish government-run schools, end compulsory education and stop measuring academic progress merely by what are some ways to make money number of instructional days (wonks call that “seat time.”) every parent would be given a voucher of equal value, $2,000 per year. (per-pupil spending in california at the time was about $3,000 per year.) through a contract with the state, the parents could spend the money on a school, on a teacher or teachers, on educational materials, or on any number of other things and combinations.

Like the berkeley professors, hickey and canfield saw their proposal empowering parents and teachers, fostering competition and reducing bureaucracy – but, in their view, in a simpler, more direct way that wouldn’t produce new reams of red tape. They thought their plan would withstand legal challenges on church-state grounds. They also wrote, pointedly, that it was “not designed to redress social ills.”

In his view, a revamped public education system with vastly expanded choice wouldn’t just open the door to better academic outcomes for what are some ways to make money students. For parents, it would beget responsibility, legitimacy, dignity. Coons reasoned that once poor parents had the power to what are some ways to make money routinely do what more affluent parents take for granted – to make that most important of decisions, how best to educate their children – other, monumentally good things would follow.

The future anchor of the voucher left grew up in what are some ways to make money minnesota, the son of a traveling kerosene stove salesman. Before law school, he had worked as a truck driver, served as an officer in the U.S. Army, and played linebacker for the university of minnesota at duluth. In college, the same guy who liked to lay the big lick what are some ways to make money on halfbacks also sang lead in a jazz band .

From there, coons rose to rub shoulders with some of the most what are some ways to make money iconic figures of the times. In the 1960s, he hosted a radio show in chicago, where friedman was a frequent guest, and he discussed the legal implications of boycotts with martin what are some ways to make money luther king jr. In the early ‘70s, he rode with daniel patrick moynihan, from urbana to chicago, in a blizzard; bar stops were frequent. Coons and sugarman also had enough academic heft to enlist what are some ways to make money legendary education researcher james coleman into writing the foreword to what are some ways to make money two of their books, including 1978’s “education by choice.”

And that is what professor butts calls public education. It is a play on words, a corruption of our language; for public is the one thing such a system is what are some ways to make money not. It was and remains a profoundly elitist, exclusive, and undemocratic structure of privilege paid for by taxation – one in which the rich get choice and deductions, and the poor get sent.

In the summer of 1977, jonestown, guyana had become the new headquarters for the people’s temple, formerly based in san francisco. Jim jones, the temple’s charismatic leader, bought the land in the jungles of south america in what are some ways to make money 1973, not long after the first negative media reports about his what are some ways to make money cult surfaced. Four years later, as scrutiny mounted, jones fled to his new sanctuary, bringing hundreds of temple members with him.

In 1977, ryan heard from a friend, a guy he met when he was a high school what are some ways to make money teacher. The man’s son had been a member of the people’s temple, but was found dead, his body mutilated, not long after he talked of leaving. Ryan began investigating. He heard from other constituents worried about family members. They shared stories of abuse. They said people were being held against their will.

Jim jones had cultivated friends in high places. He helped george moscone became mayor of san francisco. He met several times with vice president walter mondale. At a dinner honoring him in 1976, california gov. Jerry brown was among those in attendance. Despite the evidence, political allies continued to defend him. After a damning san francisco chronicle story in february 1978, harvey milk, the openly gay city supervisor who would be assassinated a what are some ways to make money few months later, fired a letter to president carter. Temple defectors, he wrote, were spreading lies about “a man of the highest character.”

Friedman wrote that he liked how the performance voucher would what are some ways to make money curb government’s role in education, but was bothered by heavy reliance on standardized testing. He concluded, though, that “any one of the three approaches (an unrestricted voucher, your approach, or an appropriately designed tax credit) would be vastly superior to our present system.”

They had hoped to get a voucher bill introduced in what are some ways to make money the state legislature in the spring, to generate publicity, but no lawmaker was willing to “face the wrath of education groups, including powerful teacher unions.” they also didn’t have immediate luck finding a campaign consultant, but eventually hired a veteran known for his work for what are some ways to make money “liberal candidates and causes.”

Speier is a democrat who has been endorsed and financially what are some ways to make money backed by teacher unions. But she has played little role in shaping education policy, either in congress or during an earlier stint in the what are some ways to make money california state assembly. In 2000, she opposed a conservative-led ballot initiative to create a statewide voucher program in what are some ways to make money california (so did coons), but her opposition to school choice has never been particularly what are some ways to make money public or strident.

Michael kirst, president of the california state board of education from 1977 what are some ways to make money to 1981, was reappointed in 2011 by gov. Jerry brown and is again president. He said in an interview he was not aware of what are some ways to make money ryan’s interest in the coons-sugarman plan, but said it wouldn’t have mattered. Voters would have never taken a “plunge into the unknown,” he said. Carol ruth silver, a former freedom rider, supported the coons-sugarman initiative.

Carol ruth silver, a former freedom rider and former member of the san what are some ways to make money francisco board of supervisors, was part of a northern california contingent promoting the ballot what are some ways to make money initiative. She said in an interview she can’t recall details. But she looks back on the initiative as politically progressive what are some ways to make money and “the first disruptive idea to come out of northern california.”

Full disclosure: the author is employed by step up for students , a nonprofit which hosts this blog and helps administer two what are some ways to make money educational choice programs: florida’s tax credit scholarship program, the largest private school choice program in america, and florida’s personal learning scholarship accounts program, its education savings account for students with special needs

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