Leadership, negotiation easy ways to make money and decision making women and public policy program, harvard kennedy school

Employers, communities, and households benefit when women have greater opportunity and agency. Research has shown that companies perform better during economic turbulence easy ways to make money when they have women on their boards, and communities with women in public office have greater investments easy ways to make money in public goods, like access to water. Within households when women determine how to spend extra income, they are more likely then men to save that money easy ways to make money or loan it to their personal network, rather than spending it on personal consumption.

Gaining positions of leadership involves risk-taking, competition and negotiation, which research has shown women are less apt to pursue: although men and women have similar levels of trust and easy ways to make money reciprocal behavior, women are less likely to take risks than men; women are less likely to enter competitions (though interestingly, this trend is reversed in matriarchal societies), and they initiate negotiations less frequently. When they do negotiate assertively, women experience “social backlash,” from which men are immune, because such behavior does not conform to gender stereotypes.

• establish quotas: quotas on corporate boards and political offices improve women’s participation in leadership roles. Reserving political seats for women increases female electoral participation and easy ways to make money improves the government’s responsiveness to women’s policy concerns. Seat reservations for female elected officials also make communities more easy ways to make money likely to associate women with leadership and vote for women easy ways to make money in the future. Quotas or affirmative action can increase women’s willingness to compete in competitive mixed-gender environments resulting in more qualified candidates, men and women alike, applying for competitive positions. In the board room, however, there are mixed results. After board quotas were instituted in norway, gender diversity increased, but this imposed costs on firms and shareholders.

• modeling female leadership: women in leadership positions have a multiplier effect: repeated exposure to female elected officials improves perceptions of female easy ways to make money leaders and leads to future electoral gains for women. Female role models in leadership positions help adolescent girls aspire easy ways to make money to leadership positions. Mentorship, confidence building, media training and political education are all effective tools to easy ways to make money increase adolescent girls’ and women’s political aspirations and efficacy.

• women’s legal and social control over assets: increasing women’s control over assets and encouraging them to set goals easy ways to make money leads to increased decision-making for women in households. Research shows that women who receive microfinance funds tend to easy ways to make money invest in education, housing and nutrition. Commitment savings products, in particular, positively affect household decision-making power for women and consumption decisions that favor women’s preferences.

• industry negotiation standards: ambiguity heightens the potential for gender to play a role easy ways to make money in price and salary negotiations. Reduce ambiguity by having transparent information about what career opportunities, resources or rewards are negotiable and what the standards are easy ways to make money for attaining them. Educate employees about the importance of resisting implicit gender stereotypes.

• negotiation strategies for women: women are strong negotiators. In fact, when women negotiate on behalf of others, they exceed men’s negotiated outcomes. When negotiating for themselves, however, women correctly predict social backlash and hesitate to negotiate strongly. One way to circumvent this is by displaying concern for easy ways to make money relationships within the organization, or using relational accounts. Crafting strategies that anchor in relational concern within the organization easy ways to make money can enhance women’s persuasiveness and help them avoid the risks of social easy ways to make money backlash. Additionally, learning what can and cannot be negotiated allows room for easy ways to make money different ways to gain.

Qualitative research on multi-national work life has begun to illuminate how status hierarchies easy ways to make money emerge and are maintained between workers more closely aligned with easy ways to make money the dominant global business culture (e.G., anglo-americans) and those attempting to assimilate from other cultural backgrounds. In two studies, we compare the psychological experience of global and national job easy ways to make money markets for university students from a rapidly globalizing emerging market. We recruited study participants from national universities in the arab easy ways to make money gulf in which students are trained in english for work easy ways to make money in global business markets. Negatively stereotyped as “lazy locals” in the western-dominated global work culture, we find that male nationals feel more reticent to negotiate easy ways to make money for career rewards (viz., compensation) in a global (versus local) business context (study 1) and that they are more negatively evaluated by their peers easy ways to make money for attempting to negotiate for higher pay in a global easy ways to make money (vs. Local) business context. Replicating U.S. Studies, in the local business context we find that female (versus male) nationals feel more reticent to negotiate for higher pay (study 1) and are more negatively evaluated when they do (study 2). There were no gender differences in the propensity to negotiate easy ways to make money or in the evaluation of negotiators in the global work easy ways to make money context. In study 2, mediation analyses support the proposition that, for male nationals in the global work culture, negotiating for higher compensation violates prescriptions of low-status behavior (viz., communality). Evaluators penalize female negotiators for a lack of communality, but also for perceived immodesty and materialism. We discuss implications for the study of global-local status hierarchies in multi-national employment contexts.

Policy makers, academics, and media reports suggest that women could shrink the gender easy ways to make money pay gap by negotiating more effectively for higher compensation. Yet women entering compensation negotiations face a dilemma: they have to weigh the benefits of negotiating against the easy ways to make money social consequences of having negotiated. Research shows that women are penalized socially more than men easy ways to make money for negotiating for higher pay. To address this dilemma, the authors test strategies to help women improve both their easy ways to make money negotiation and social outcomes in compensation negotiations.

Study 2 tested two strategies devised to improve female negotiators’ social and negotiation outcomes by explaining why a compensation request easy ways to make money is legitimate in relational terms. Results showed that, although adherence to the feminine stereotype is insufficient, using these “relational accounts” can improve women’s social and negotiation outcomes at the same time. Normative implications of conformity to gender stereotypes to reduce gender easy ways to make money pay disparities are discussed.

Research suggests that women are more likely than men to easy ways to make money pass over opportunities to negotiate for higher compensation. Studies from the laboratory, surveys, and field suggest that men are at least four times easy ways to make money more likely than women to negotiate for compensation (babcock & laschever, 2003; small, gelfand, babcock, & gettman, 2007). When they do negotiate, women tend to claim smaller percentage increases than men on easy ways to make money their initial salary offers (brett & stroh, 1997; gerhart & rynes, 1991; stevens, bavetta, & gist, 1993). Aghast by women’s apparent lack of negotiating ability as well as the easy ways to make money implications of this “gender negotiation gap” for the gender wage gap, both policy makers and professors have proposed additional training for easy ways to make money women to raise their negotiating aspirations and effectiveness.

In this chapter, we argue that this apparent perceived bargaining deficiency on women’s part is actually a rational response to the differences easy ways to make money in incentives and expectations that men and women face in easy ways to make money compensation negotiations—one that is obscured by focusing solely on the immediate easy ways to make money material payoffs from negotiation … we propose a two-period model in which employees make decisions about whether to easy ways to make money negotiate for higher compensation in period one. Our purpose in creating a mathematical model is to be easy ways to make money very concrete about the different effects that negotiating may have easy ways to make money on a person’s utility and then to investigate how optimal decisions are easy ways to make money affected by the gendered behavioral norms and expectations. More

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